Consolidation methods

The assets and liabilities of the German and foreign companies included in the consolidated financial statements are recognized in accordance with the uniform accounting policies used within the Volkswagen Group. In the case of companies accounted for using the equity method, the same accounting policies are applied to determine the proportionate equity, based on the most recent audited annual financial statements of each company.

In the case of subsidiaries consolidated for the first time, assets and liabilities are measured at their fair value at the date of acquisition. Their carrying amounts are adjusted in subsequent years. Goodwill arises when the purchase price of the investment exceeds the fair value of identifiable net assets. Goodwill is tested for impairment once a year to determine whether its carrying amount is recoverable. If the carrying amount of goodwill is higher than the recoverable amount, an impairment loss must be recognized. If this is not the case, there is no change in the carrying amount of goodwill compared with the previous year. If the purchase price of the investment is less than the identifiable net assets, the difference is recognized in the income statement in the year of acquisition. Goodwill is accounted for at the subsidiaries in the functional currency of those subsidiaries. Any difference that arises from the acquisition of additional shares of an already consolidated subsidiary is taken directly to equity. Unless otherwise stated, the proportionate equity directly attributable to noncontrolling interests is determined at the acquisition date as the share of the fair value of the assets (excluding goodwill) and liabilities attributable to them. Contingent consideration is measured at fair value at the acquisition date. Subsequent changes in the fair value of contingent consideration do not generally result in the adjustment of the acquisition-date measurement. Acquisition-related costs that are not equity transaction costs are not added to the purchase price, but instead recognized as expenses in the period in which they are incurred.

The consolidation process involves adjusting the items in the separate financial statements of the parent and its subsidiaries and presenting them as if they were those of a single economic entity. Intragroup assets, liabilities, equity, income, expenses and cash flows are eliminated in full. Intercompany profits or losses are eliminated in Group inventories and noncurrent assets. Deferred taxes are recognized for consolidation adjustments, and deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset where taxes are levied by the same tax authority and relate to the same tax period.